European Illustrations of Native Americans

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Galli Maio relicto, duos alios amnes observant. III.
Two rowing boats filled with colonists are shown entering the mouth of a river. Three round structures sit on the left bank of the river. Three Indigenous figures also stand on the left bank; however, their figures are indistinct.
Galli ad Portum Regalem perveniunt. V.
Two large ships are shown at the mouth of the river, while another smaller ship sails further up the river. Two Indigenous people on the bank of the river roast a small animal over the fire, while several others run with bows and arrows. On both sides of the river there are round structures.
Galli in Caroli propugnaculo relicti, annonae penuria laborant. VII.
A network of rivers and canals is pictured. On the right side of the image four Indigenous people row a dugout canoe. On the bank of the river on the left side of the image there are several round structures, a group of Indigenous people on land, and another canoe in the water. Some of the individuals hold long spears, some carry large baskets on their backs. In the caption, Charlesfort refers to the first French settlement in Florida in 1562.
Galli locum condendae arci aptum deligunt. IX.
A group of colonists is shown. They are in the process of building a stronghold on an island in the middle of the river. The stronghold in triangular and is being built of wood.
Gallorum Praefectus columnam, in qua Regis Galliarum insignia, statuit. VI.
Three ships are pictured, one large and two small. Two sit at the mouth of the river, while one is further upstream. A colonist is disembarking the small boat upstream and stepping onto an island in the middle of the river. Further upstream several small round structures sit on the bank of the river. The monument mentioned in the image title can be seen on the left of the image in the middle. It was erected by Jean Ribault in 1562, during the first French voyage to Florida.
Gallorum ad Maij flumen navigatio. II.
Two small rowboats of settlers are shown at the mouth of the May River (known today as the St. Johns River) on the coast of Florida. There are two Indigenous people in the water, appearing to greet one of the boats. On the right bank, a group of Indigenous people stand, some hold bows and arrows. Some are looking at and gesturing towards the colonists’ boats. Four small round structures are also pictured on the right bank.
Hermaphroditorum officia. XVII.
In this image two pairs of Indigenous people (one pair in the foreground of the image and one in the background) carry stretchers between them with another individual on it. In the background, two people each carry another individual on their back. In the foreground, the stretcher bearers wear their long hair unbound and grass skirts around their waists, with no other clothing or decoration. The original caption of the image indicates that the individuals carrying the stretchers and carrying others on their backs are hermaphrodites (today known as intersex individuals).
Hostium oppida noctu incendendi ratio. XXXI.
A group of Indigenous men stand outside a town. They are using large bows to fire arrows over the trees and fence surrounding a town. The arrows have been set on fire and they spread flames to the roofs of the houses in the town when they land.
In cerui exuvio Soli consecrando solennes ritus. XXXV.
In the foreground, several colonists stand with an Indigenous man. The Indigenous man wears an adorned loincloth and bracelets around his wrists and knees. His skin is covered in tattooed or painted designs. To the left of the men, a group of Indigenous people kneel on the ground in a semi-circle with their arms outstretched or raised above their heads. At the center of the circle there is a log standing on end. Two Indigenous people are beside it, one standing and one kneeling, both with their arms raised. In the upper left corner, the sun is shown, with the remains of a deer in the sun beams.
Les grands Seigneurs de Roanoack. VII.
An Indigenous man, a chief, is pictured from the front and from behind standing on the bank of a river. A section of his hair is feathered in the middle of his head from his forehead to the nape of his neck, where the rest of his hair is gathered in a knot. He wears beaded earrings, a necklace with a large square pendant, and beaded bracelets around his wrists. He wears a fringed skirt draped around his waist and is barefoot and shirtless. In the background, other Indigenous people are seen in canoes, and there is a fishing apparatus in the water in the left part of the background.
L’accoustrement d’iuer d’un Vieillard de Pomeioock. IX.
An old man stands on a hilltop. He wears a fringed garment draped around his body and over one shoulder. His hair is spiked down the middle of his head from forehead to nape of neck, where it is gathered into a knot. On his feet are slippers. Behind him on the ground below the hill, cultivated fields surround a village – a small group of dwellings with a fence around them.
Mulierum extinctos maritos lugentium ceremoniae. XIX.
Several Indigenous women are shown scattering a substance, possibly leaves or a grass, onto the ground. The women are mostly nude, although some wear a light skirt of grass tied around their waist or draped from their shoulder to their waist.

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