El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno. Illustrations by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (1600-1650)

Pages

A Topa Amaro le Cortan la Cavesa en el Cvzco
This image depicts the beheading of the young fifteen-year-old Inca, Topa Amaro Inca. The young Inca had expressed he had no desire to meet Don Francisco de Toledo, the viceroy of Peru, and the viceroy was offended by the Inca’s words. The viceroy sentenced the Inca to be beheaded for this reason. Topa Amaro Inca is illustrated laying on a table with his hands bound together. There are three Spaniards depicted aiding in the beheading. One man is holding down the Inca’s legs while another man holds the Inca’s head still. The third man is depicted holding a sword to the Inca’s neck with one hand and a hammer in his other hand. There is a group of indigenous peoples at the bottom of the image looking up at the scene of the beheading of the Inca. They are depicted crying and grieving for the young Inca. The caption written above their heads reads, “ynga uana cauri maytam rinqui sapra aucanchiccho mana huchayocta concayquita cuchon” [Inca Wanacauri, where are you going? Is our wicked enemy cutting your blameless neck?]. The caption at the bottom of the image reads, “en el cuzco” [in Cusco].
A de Rezar a la S[antici]ma Trinidad
This image depicts the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. God depicted as the Father is sitting on the right side of the image wearing a long, decorated robe as he holds an orb which symbolizes the Earth. He is also wearing a triangular halo which represents the Holy Trinity. Jesus Christ, the Son, is illustrated sitting on the left side of the image holding the cross that he was crucified on. There are nail marks on the cross and on his hands and feet, and a puncture wound below his right breast which was stabbed by the holy lance. The letters written at the top of the crucifix spell “I.N.R.I” [Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum/Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews]. The Holy Spirit is represented through the dove that is in the centre of the image. There are clouds beneath the feet of Christ and God which demonstrates they are in Heaven. The caption at the bottom of the image reads, “trinidad” [trinity].
A de ser Desaminado el Buen Prencipal de Letra y Lengua de Espanol que Sepa Hazer Una Peticion, Enterrogatorio y Pleyto y que no Sea Borracho ni Coquero ni Jugador ni Mentiroso en Este Rreyno
This image is illustrated in a chapter that discusses the descendants of the Inca and Andean nobles under Spanish colonial rule in Peru and their importance to a revived Andean society. This image depicts an Andean lord sitting at a table writing on a piece of paper. There is a book, a rosary, and ink for the noble’s quill on the desk. The noble appears to be writing down a grievance being proclaimed by the indigenous person standing to the right of the lord. The letter being written by the noble reads, “del terzio de san juan pago 80 pesos pedro n” [for the first half of the year 80 pesos were paid by Pedro N]. The author explains that noble lords should be educated in the Spanish and Quechua language in order to draw up written documents like petitions, lawsuits, and questionnaires to be able to defend native subjects.
Abril Camai Inca Raimi Quilla
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the traditions and rituals of each month during the Inca Empire. The Incas tracked the months and years through the stars and their months consisted of thirty days. This image depicts the month of April, which was dedicated to the festival of the Inca. The month of April provided ripe crops which allowed them to have a great feast. The author explains that the Inca Emperor would invite lords, chiefs and the common people to the festival, where they would play games, sing and enjoy entertainment. This image depicts the festivities as the Inca Emperor is looking up to the sun as he sings while two women stand behind him playing musical instruments. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “fiesta del ynga” which translates to “festival of the Inca.”
Abvciones Agveros Atitapia Acoiraqvi
This busy image depicts many omens that were considered evil in the Inca Empire. These omens were believed to bring misfortune or death. A snake is depicted at the bottom of the image with the words “machacuay acoyraqui puromanca cay uacichic” [serpent of misfortune our house will be destroyed] written along the length of the snake. Above the snake is a fox looking to the left with a caption written on its body that reads “El zorro arrastra al demonio, arrastra a su creador” [the fox drags the demon, drags his creator]. Above the fox is a large insect and the caption above it reads “nina nina curucta ayzaycuuan, uarmi uanonca” [a large insect has brought a worm, my wife will die]. A butterfly is illustrated above the insect. There is a caption above the butterfly that reads “tapacuy yaycuan uanazacmi” [a butterfly approached]. There is a tree on the right side of the image with a chusic [owl] at the top of the tree, then a tuco [horned owl] in the middle, with a pacpac [pymgy owl] to the top right of the pygmy owl, then a chicollo [bird], and the last branch depicts a pecpe [small bird]. The man in the centre of the image has a frightened expression on his face, and the caption beside him reads “astaya uanozacmi” [bad luck, I will die].
Administrador de Provincias Svivioc Gvaiac Poma Apo Senor
This chapter discusses the system of administrative officials in the Inca Empire. This image depicts a suyuyoc [provincial administrator] named Carua Poma, son of Capac Apo Guayac Poma. He is illustrated standing in the centre of the image holding two quipus [a device for recording information]. The author explains that these officials were sons of noble lineage and were chosen for this position to learn about accounting, administration, and governing. These officials were required to oversee communities and their fields and sacrifices and ensure everything was accounted for.
Administradores: Tineente I Protetor, Capac Apo Suyoyoccona
This image depicts the author of the book, Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, standing in front of a door as he inserts a key into the lock with his left hand while he holds a book with his right. There is a container of ink with a feathered plum resting on a book at the bottom of the image. The author explains that he was an administrator protector and lieutenant general of his province in Lucanas and Soras and was responsible for the well-fare of the people in his province and ensuring the community was well fed and supplied. The caption below the window in the top right corner of the image reads, “depocito de la comunidad y sapci” [deposit of the community]. The caption at the bottom of the image reads, “en este rreyno” [in this kingdom].
Agosto Chacra Iapvi Quilla
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the traditions and rituals of each month during the Inca Empire. The Incas tracked the months and years through the stars and their months consisted of thirty days. This image depicts the month of August which was dedicated to plowing fields for agriculture. This image depicts a row of men shoveling to prepare the ground to sow in their seeds. There is an old woman on the right side of the image carrying a cup and there are women on the left side of the image looking at the men shoveling. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “tienpo de labransa hayllinmi ynca,” which translates to “time for plowing, Inca farmer’s dance.”
Alcaides: Pregonero, Verdvgo, Mayo Zanco
This image depicts an old native man who performs various administrative functions in colonial Peru. He is described as the town crier as well as the executioner. He is illustrated walking with a cane in his right hand as he also holds a bag and a rosary. His left hand holds a long ceremonial staff. He is dressed in traditional clothing with an embroidered unku [tunic] and a cloak draped over his shoulders. He also has a head piece that has a flower attached to the front. The caption at the bottom of the image reads, “en este rreyno” [in this kingdom].
Alcaldes Hordenario de Sv Mag[esta]d, Camiua
This image is illustrated in a section where the author discusses and calls for literacy and better bilingualism amongst Andean nobles in the colonial Spanish government. He desires native officials to be bilingual in Spanish and Quechua in order to better navigate the colonial system and be better equipped to help the native people of Peru. The local official in this image is depicted standing in the centre of the image wearing a tunic with a shawl draped over his shoulders. He wears a head piece that has a feather and a flower. He is holding a long staff in his right hand and a rosary in his left. This official was responsible for ensuring local villages and towns were well fed and stocked with hens, food, sheep and all other necessities of life. The caption at the bottom of the image reads, “en este rreyno” [in this kingdom].
Alcaldes: Como Le Castiga el Coreg[id]or al Pobre del Alcalde Hordenario de su Magestad
This image depicts a mayor of a local indigenous town standing on the left side of the image ordering a black slave to whip a magistrate. The magistrate is being punished for falling two eggs short of his tribute. The author criticizes the mayor for shamefully punishing the magistrate without the justice of God. The dialogue written by the mayor’s mouth reads, “dale” [go on!]. The dialogue written by the slave’s mouth reads, “tray dos guebos que falta” [two eggs are missing]. The native magistrate, who is illustrated on the right side of the image tied to a post with rope, replies, “ay, por amor de dios” [Oh for the love of God]. The caption at the bottom of the image reads, “en este rreyno” [in this kingdom].
Algvazil Maior, Chacnai Camaioc, Lvurin Cvzco
This chapter discusses the system of administrative officials in the Inca Empire. This image depicts a young law enforcement official who is illustrated holding a stick that carries a chuspa [small bag] and ojotas [sandals]. These two items were used as a form of identification. These two items were used as a form of identification while enforcing law and justice in the kingdom. This official’s title was uatay camayoc [major constable].

Pages