Latin American Chronicles

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Capitvlo Primero Entiero Del Inga Inca Illapa Aia Defvnto
This image depicts the traditional burial ceremony of the Inca. The Inca and his coya [queen] would have their bodies embalmed and dressed in garments to make them look alive. The dead Inca and the coya are depicted sitting on the right side of the image. The author explains that the Inca would be mourned for a month and then taken to the pucullo [tomb] to be buried. The pucullo is depicted in the background of the engraving with a skeleton in the window. The figures on the left side of the image are depicted making liquid offerings to the dead Inca and his coya. The caption “yllapa defunto” [deceased Inca] is written beside the Inca. The word “entierro” [burial] is written at the bottom of the image.
Capitvlo, Primer Capitan Inga Ivpanqvi
This illustration depicts the first Captain, Yupanqui. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. The author explains that this captain was lazy, slept all the time, had parties, and was not focused on his duty. This is why he is depicted sleeping in this image with the sun rising through his window. Some of his belongings such as shoes and bag are hanging on the wall above him. The words “dormilon, peresoso capitan, ponoy camayoc quilla cinchicona” are written in the centre of the image which translates to “sleepyhead, lazy captain, he slept all the time.” The words “en el cuzco” are written below the sleeping captain, which means “in Cusco,” the capital of the Inca empire. The words “cin conquistar murio” are written at the very bottom of the image which translates to “without conquering he died.”
Castigo Ivsticia Sancai Inqvicicion
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the justice and punishment systems of the Inca Empire. The author discusses five methods of punishment in detail, and this image represents the first punishment. This image depicts what a jail cell resembled during the Inca Empire. The author explains that any wrongdoers, traitors or criminals, especially those who were in the Inquisition, would be forced into a subterranean sancay [dungeon] that was filled with jaguars, snakes, foxes, bears, vultures, and other predatory animals. The animals would be put into the dungeons so that the criminal would be eaten alive. This image depicts a man sitting in the dark dungeon surrounded by animals who approach him. The caption at the top left corner reads “yaya pachacamac uanazac yaya cay soncuypa yuyascanmi” [father Pachacamac I will learn my lesson, father is my heart’s memory]. The top right corner reads “caypaccho yaya yumauarcanqui mama uachauarcanqui” [father did you beget me for this, mother did you give birth to me for this]. The bottom left corner reads “zancay suclla micuuay huchazapa soncuyta” [prison eat my wicked heart once and for all]. The bottom right corner reads “maypim canqui huchazapapac camachic quispichiuay runa camac dios” [where are you creator of sinners, save me creator of man, God].
Cesto Calle Macta
The author explains that there were ten paths for pmen to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This sixth group was called macta [young boy]. This group was young boys aged twelve to eighteen years old who had the duties of watching over farmer’s herds and to catch birds that would be used for meat. The young boy depicted in the image is illustrated holding a net in his right hand and three dead birds in his left. There is a herd of llamas depicted standing behind him. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “de edad de doze años cirue a la comunidad y sapci” which translates to “twelve years old, he serves the community and their sapsi [property].”
Como Dios Ordeno Las Dichas Historias Primer Coronica
This illustration depicts Don Martín de Ayala, the father of author Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala sitting on a small throne in the centre of the image. He is illustrated holding a rosary in his right hand and gesturing to his stepson with his left. His stepson, Martín de Ayala, is illustrated kneeling before his step-father who is teaching him about his doctrine and God. Don Martín de Ayala’s wife, Doña Juana Curi Oclla Coya, is pictured beside him on the right of the image sitting cross-legged. Their names are written above their heads to identify them. The script written at the feet of Don Martín reads “en la ciudad del Cuzco” which translates to “In the city of Cusco”. There is a dove flying above Martín de Ayala’s head which symbolizes the Holy Spirit.
Conzejo Alcalde De Corte Hanan Cvsco Inga Capac Apo Vatac
This chapter discusses the system of administrative officials in the Inca Empire. This image depicts an official in the Inca’s council named Apo Cullic Chaua. He was responsible for arresting lords who rebelled or committed crimes against the Inca. He is illustrated walking in an open area wearing a mascapaycha [imperial crown] to demonstrate his authority over the lords that he would arrest. The caption at the bottom of the image reads "alcalde de corte" [mayor of the court].
Coregidor de Provincias Tocrico Ives Michoc
This chapter discusses the system of administrative officials in the Inca Empire. This image depicts a provincial district official holding a walking stick in his right hand and carrying a small bag on his left wrist. The author explains that these officials were from the lineage of Tambo Inca (this name is written above the official's head) and those of this lineage usually had physical deformities on their ears, hands or feet. This official appears to have a deformity on his ear. These officials were chosen to enforce the law as they were not fit for war due to their deformities.
Coreon Maior I Menor Hatvn Chasqvi Chvrv, Mvllo Chasqvi, Cvraca
This chapter discusses the system of administrative officials in the Inca Empire. This image depicts a chasque [runner] who was responsible for taking food from storehouses and bringing it to the Inca when requested to. These runners were stationed at half-league intervals so that they could run faster and be time efficient whenever the Inca would call on them. This runner is depicted wearing a feathered visor on his head and blowing into a shell trumpet. He is also illustrated holding a star shaped club, a sling, and a basket of food in his left hand. The author explains that the feathered visor and trumpet were both visual and auditory cues to warn and prepare the next runner.
Crio Dios Al Mundo entrego a adan y a eua
This illustration depicts God in the centre of the image placing his right hand on Adam’s head and his left hand on Eve’s head as he gives them the world. The word “adan” (meaning “Adam”) is written above Adams head, while the name “eua” (meaning “Eve”) is written above Eve’s head. The word “mundo” is written on the ground to demonstrate the world that God is giving to them. God is depicted wearing long robes and wearing a triangular shape on his head to symbolize the Holy Trinity. There is a sun in the top left corner, and a moon at the top right corner.
De Ingas Mango Capac Inga
This image depicts the first father of the Incas, Manco Capac Inca. He is pictured wearing a feathered head garb and large ear plugs. He is holding a ceremonial ax in his right hand and a parasol in his left. His shirt has three stripes in the middle with distinct shapes on them. The author explains that Manco Capac Inca brought all of Cusco under his control and rule. It is believed that he lived to be 160 years old. The bottom of the image reads “este ynga rayno solo el cuzco aca mama” which translates to “this Inca ruled over only Cusco (Acamama).”
De Los Ingas I de Sv Conzejo Pinas Carzeles
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the justice and punishment systems of the Inca Empire. The author discusses five methods of punishment in detail, and this image represents the second punishment. This image depicts prisons that nobles were sent to in the Inca Empire. A uchayoc auqui [guilty prince] is illustrated squatting in front of the jail structure. The prince is depicted holding his cloak with his right hand and crying as he points with his left hand to a block of text that reads “yuyaymi apauan uacaynu apauan caycan soncuyta nacaycosacmi haray haraui pinas uaci uatay uazi cachariuaytac” [My thoughts take me, weeping takes me, this bad heart I will sacrifice it. Jail house let me out].
De Los Ingas Iavar Pampa Castigo Los Qve Mata Con Ponzona Hanpiyoc Collayoc Runa Uatoc
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the justice and punishment systems of the Inca Empire. The author discusses five methods of punishment in detail, and this image represents the fifth punishment. This punishment was given to those who used potions and poisons to kill others. The author describes them as sorcerers. The sorcerers who were convicted of this crime were sentenced to death. Their entire lineage, apart from babies, were also sentenced to death to avoid future sorcerers. The author explains that these people were not granted burials and were left to be eaten by animals. This image depicts a sorcerer on the left side of the image about to be killed by an executioner on the right side of the image. The executioner is illustrated holding what appears to be either a long sword or a club. The words “amatac ynca” [No, Inca] are being spoken by the sorcerer as they hold up their hand in fear, while the executioner says “uanuy runa micoc” [die, man-eaters]. The sorcerer’s family is depicted lying dead on the ground after having already been executed. There is a small child still alive and crying in the bottom left corner.

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