Latin American Chronicles

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Del Inga Anta Caca Aravai Castigos de Virgenes
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the justice and punishment systems of the Inca Empire. The author discusses five methods of punishment in detail, and this image represents the fourth punishment. The author explains that male and female rapists, as well as those who consented, would be punished to protect the virtue of the virgin youth in the Inca Empire. They would be hanged by their hair on an anta caca [stone gallow] and left to die. This image depicts both a man and woman with a rope tied around their hair as they hang over the stone behind them. They have tears running down their face as a figure on the right holds the rope. The caption written by the two hanging figures reads “tasquecona uacllispa huchallicoccuna” [young ones who transgressed]. The writing on the stone reads “anta caca cobre pena” [stone gallow causes sorrow].
Del Inga Vinpillai Castigos de Advlteras
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the justice and punishment systems of the Inca Empire. The author discusses five methods of punishment in detail, and this image represents the third punishment. This image depicts the punishment for adultery in the Inca Empire: death by stoning. The author explains that the capital punishment would be received by both the man and the woman participating in the adulterous act, and their bodies would not be buried, but rather given to wild animals. If a woman or a man was raped, the rapist would receive the capital punishment and the person who was raped would receive a non-lethal punishment. This image depicts a naked man and woman on the left side of the image being stoned to death by the two officials on the right. The word “huacoc” [adulterer] is written at the top of the image to describe the events. The word “huacoc haplla” [violent adulterer] is written above the naked man’s head and the words “huchaymi yncallay” [it is my fault my Inca] are being spoken by the naked man. The words “uanuy auca” [die enemy] are being spoken by the man holding the stones. There are words written above the stone that the man is holding which reads “quillis chachi ynca” [a tribe in the valley of Anta].
Depocito Del Inga Collca
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the Inca and his life. This image depicts the Inca in front of his many collca [storehouses]. There are four storehouses illustrated at top of the image behind the Inca and four at the bottom in front of the Inca. The Inca had storehouses in many regions over the empire and they were mostly filled with food items such as maize, sweet potatoes, coca, and chile peppers. The Inca is depicted wearing his traditional regalia and holding a scepter in his left hand and pointing with his right as he speaks to an administrator who supervises the collca. The administrator is depicted holding a quipu in both of his hands. The caption to the left of the Inca’s head identifies him as Topa Inca Yupanqui. The caption to the right of the administrator’s head identifies him as “administrador, suyoyoc, apo poma chaua” [administrator, Apo Poma Chaua].
Deziembre Capac Inti Raimi
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the traditions and rituals of each month during the Inca Empire. The Incas tracked the months and years through the stars and their months consisted of thirty days. This image depicts the month of December, which was dedicated to celebrating the Sun, the king of all things. Many sacrifices of gold, silver and children, all dedicated to the sun were performed throughout this month. After the sacrifices they would have a large festival. This image depicts the celebrations as a crowd gathers underneath the sun. The Inca Emperor is illustrated standing in front of the crowd looking at the sun. The people behind him are playing musical instruments. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “la gran pascua solene del sol,” which translates to “the great Easter-like festival of the Sun.”
Dezima Calle Qviravpi Cac Vava
The author explains that there were ten paths for women to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This group is called quiraupicac uaua [baby in the cradle] and these were babies were two to five months in age. The author explains that the baby’s mother, relatives and siblings would care for the child as she grows. This image depicts a baby girl sleeping in a wicker cradle. The caption reads “de edad de un mes, otro que le cirua,” which translates to “one month old, others serve her.”
Dezimo Calle Qviravpi Cac
The author explains that there were ten paths for men to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This tenth path is called quiraupicac [cradle baby]. The group refers to babies from the age of one month old who must be cared for by their mother. The author also explains that this group is the last group division of Inca men. The image depicts a baby laying in a wicker cradle. The caption reads “de edad de un mes otro que le cirua” which translates to “one month old, others serve him.”
Egenplo Del Padre I Caecedo Penitencia
This illustration depicts Martín de Ayala, step brother to the author (Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala) in the centre of the image kneeling before a crucifix. He is illustrated holding a lash as he whips himself in penance before the altar. “Padre Ayala” is written above and to the left of his head to identify him. There is a winged spirit flying through the window placing a halo upon Martín de Ayala’s head. Behind Martín de Ayala is his companion, Diego Beltrán de Caysedo. The words “Diego Beltrán de Caysedo, administrador del hospital, conpañero del padre Ayala” are written above his head, which translates to “Diego Beltrán de Caysedo, administrator of the hospital, companion to Father Ayala.” The bottom of the image notes that this takes place in the city of Huamanga, as it reads “en la ciudad Guamanga.”
El Catorze Capitan Mallco Castilla Pari
This illustration depicts the fourteenth captain, Mallco Castilla Pari. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. This captain is depicted standing in the centre of the image holding a spear in his right hand and what appears to be a whip in his left. His shield is resting on the ground by his feet. The word “collasuyo” is written beside his left foot. Collasuyo was a region which made up part of the Inca Empire.
El Decimo Capitan Challco Chima
This illustration depicts the tenth captain, Chalcochima. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. This captain was the son of Huayna Capac, the king of the Inca Empire. The captain is depicted standing in front of his army on the left side of the image as he faces his enemies who are on the right side. He is holding a long staff in his right hand and his shield in his left. The places “Quito, Cayanbi, Canari, Chachapoya” are written at the bottom of the image in between the left leg of the captain and the leg of his enemy, which describes the regions that this captain had conquered.
El Decimo Inga Topa Inga Ivpanqvi
This illustration depicts the tenth king of the Inca Empire, Topa Inca Yupanqui. He is the successor of his father Pachacuti. He is depicted wearing an embroidered shirt while holding a shield in his left hand and an ax in his right. There are words written at the bottom of the image which reads, “Reynó Tarma, Chinchay Cocha, Uarochiri, Canta, Atapillo, Ucros, Yachas, Chiscay, Conchoco, Huno Uayllas, Uaranga Uanoco Allauca e Ychoca, Uamalli.” These are all the regions that this king had conquered during his reign. The author explains that this king named all the monuments and landmarks in his kingdom.
El Doze Capitan Capac Apo Gvaman Chava
This illustration depicts the twelfth captain, Capac Apo Guaman Chaua. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. The author explains that this man was captain general of the people of Chinchaysuyo. This is why “Chinchaysuyo” is written at the bottom of the image. He is depicted holding a long spear in his right hand and a club in his left, with his shield resting on the ground beside him. The author explains that this captain conquered from the province of Quito to New Grenada.
El Dozeno Inga Topa Cvci Gvalpa Gvascar Inga
This illustration depicts the twelfth and final king of the Inca Empire, Topa Cusiwualpa Wascar, standing in the centre of the image. In this image, he is depicted being taken as a prisoner by his enemies. His hands are bound behind him and the two men on either side of him are holding the ropes attached to him. There are words written on his tunic which reads, “Acabó de rreynar, murió en Andamarca” which translates to “His rule ended, he died in Andamarca.” There are words written at the bottom of the image under the feet of both of his captors. These are the names of his captors, with the far-left figure being identified as Quisquis Inca and the figure on the right is identified as Challcochima Inca. The words written at the bottom which are outside the image border reads “Comensó a rreynar y murió” which translates to “He began to rule and he died.”

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