Latin American Chronicles

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El Noveno Capitan Inga Vrcon
This illustration depicts the ninth captain Inca Urcon. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. He was the son of Topa Inca Yupanqui, the king of the Inca Empire. The author explains that this captain was tasked with bringing large stones from Cusco to Huanuco (written as Guanoco at the bottom of the image). Therefore, he is illustrated standing atop a large stone on the left side of the image as his men pull the stone with rope. There is writing on the stone which says, “lloro sangre la piedra” which translates to “the stone wept blood.” He wrote this because the stone refused to move.
El Noveno Inga Pachacvti Inga Ivpanqvi
This illustration depicts the ninth king of the Inca Empire, Pachacuta Yupanqui. The author has depicted him holding a shield in his left hand and a sling in his right hand while wearing traditional royal garb. There is writing at the bottom of the image which reads, “Reynó hasta Chile y de toda su cordellera” which translates to “King up to Chile and all of its mountain range.” This is to demonstrate this king’s expansion of his kingdom.
El Onze Capitan Rvmi Navi Traidor
This illustration depicts the eleventh captain, Ruminaui. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. The author describes him as a traitor due to his murdering of Prince Yllescas Inca, the son of Inca Emperor Huayna Capac. This image depicts his gruesome murder of the prince as he cuts open the prince’s abdomen while he is hung from his ankles. The words “en quito mato ynga yllescas” are written at the bottom of the image which translates to “In Quito he killed Inca Yllescas.”
El Onzeno Inga Gvaina Capac
This illustration depicts the eleventh king of the Inca Empire, Huayna Capac Inca. He is depicted wearing an embroidered shirt while holding a shield in his left hand and an ax in his right. There are words written at the bottom of the image that reads “Reynó Chachapoya, Quito, Lataconga, Ciccho, Guanca Bilca, Cayanbi, Cañari,” which describes the regions of which this king ruled over.
El Otabo Capitan Apo Camac Inga
This illustration depicts the eighth captain, Apo Camac Inca. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. This captain was the son of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the king of the Inca Empire. This captain is depicted leading an army on the right side of the image as they face their enemies. The author explains that Apo Camac Inca lead 50,000 soldiers to conquer Chile. The words “yndios de chile” is written below the soldiers on the left-hand side of the image to identify them as the “Indians of Chile.” The author explains that the captain and his soldiers killed over 150,000 Chileans and starved them out for ten years in order to conquer the entire country.
El Otabo Inga Vira Cocha Inga
This illustration depicts the eighth king of the Inca Empire, Viracocha (also spelled as Wiraqucha). He is illustrated wearing traditional royal garb and holding a shield in his left hand and a long ax in his right. The author describes him to be a religiously devout leader and explains his conquests were vast. The bottom of the image reads “Reynó Guanca, Yauyos, Xauxa, Caxa, Yca, Chincha, Lati, Sulco, Lima,” which are all the cities this king had conquered.
El Primer Mvndo Adan Eva
This illustration depicts Adam and Eve in the first age of the world. The author of the text believes there are five ages, or eras of the world, with the age of Adam and Eve being the first. Adam is illustrated making some form of spear or weapon, and Eve is illustrated holding their first two sons, Cain and Abel. There are birds flying in the sky and a rooster is depicted on the ground by Adams feet. The word “Adan” (Adam) is written above Adam’s head and the word “Eua” (Eve) is faintly visible above Eve’s head to identify them. The sun is depicted in the top left-hand corner of the image, while the moon is depicted on the top right-hand corner. The words “en el mundo” are written at the bottom of the image, which translates to “in the world.”
El Primer Nveva Coronica I Bven Gobierno Conpvesto Por Don Phelipe Gvaman Poma De Aiala
This is the first drawing of the book located on the title page. The image depicts the author of the book kneeling in the bottom right corner with his hands joined and a hat on the ground in front of him. The king of Spain is depicted kneeling beside him with a crown on the ground beside him. They are both kneeling before the pope, who is depicted on the left side of the image sitting in a large chair and holding a scepter in his right hand and what appears to be the globus cruciger in his left hand. There are three coats of arms illustrated in the centre of the image, and a symbol with the letters g, f, and p in a circle with the word “aiala” written beneath it. This is to represent the name of the author, which is Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “El Reino De Las Indias” [The Kingdom of the Indies].
El Primero Mes Enero Capac Raimi Camai Quilla
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the traditions and rituals of each month during the Inca Empire. The Incas tracked the months and years through the stars and their months consisted of thirty days. This image depicts the month of January, which was dedicated to sacrifices, seeking penance and fasting. Capac Raymi Camay Quilla translates to Royal Feast, Festival of the Moon. The image depicts a large group of people sitting together in a ceremony and appear to be praying. The caption on the image reads “penitencia y ayunos del ynga,” which translates to “penance and fasting of the Incas.”
El Qvarto Capitan Apo Maita Inga
This illustration depicts the fourth captain, Apu Mayta. These captains were a level of Inca authority who helped lead the conquest of the Andes. Apu Mayta was the son of the fourth Inca king Mayta Capac. Apu Mayta is depicted on the left side of the image holding a shield in his left hand and an ax in his right as he leads an army behind him. He is facing an army on the right side of the image. The army that he is fighting are people indigenous to Charcas, Bolivia. The words “charcacuna yndios de charca” are written at the bottom right corner of the image. This is to identify the army on the right side of the image as it translates to “charcacuna, Indians from Charca.”
El Qvarto Edad De Indios, Avca Rvna
This illustration depicts the Auca Runa people of Peru, who the author describes as a warmongering people, although still devout to God. He explains that these people strategically settled themselves in high mountainous areas in order to protect themselves in war, which is why the people on the left side of the image are pictured on a high structure. The word “aucapacharuna” is written in the centre of the image which the author explains means enemy people or war people. The word “pucara” is written on one of the stones that the Auca Runa are standing on, which translates to “fortress.” At the bottom left corner of the image, the words “en este reyno de las indias” are written, which translates to “in this kingdom of the Indians.”
El Qvarto Inga Maita Capac Inga
This illustration depicts the fourth king of the Incas, Mayta Capac. He is depicted holding a shield with his left hand and a mantle in his right. He is wearing a feathered visor and appears to be going into battle by the way he is standing with his shield up. The words at the bottom of the image read “Reynó hasta la prouincia de los Charcas, Chuui, Carauayos,” which translates to “King to the province of Charcas, Chuui, Carauayos.” Charcas is a small city in modern day Bolivia and Chuui refers to the country Chile. Here, the author is demonstrating the expansion of the Inca Empire.

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