Latin American Chronicles

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Nacimiento De Iesvcristo en Belen
This image depicts a nativity scene of baby Jesus with his parents, Mary ad Joseph looking over him in prayer. The words "san jusepe" are written above Joseph's head to identify him, and the words "santa maria" are written above Mary's head to identify her. Jesus' name is written above him as well. The words "nacio en belen" is written at the bottom of the image, which translates to "he was born in Bethlehem."
Nobienbre Aia Marcai Quilla
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the traditions and rituals of each month during the Inca Empire. The Incas tracked the months and years through the stars and their months consisted of thirty days. This image depicts the month of November, which was dedicated to celebrating the dead. They would take their dead out of burial vaults and dress the bodies with feathers and celebratory garments and sing and dance with them. This image depicts two people carrying a dead body on a plank of wood which is resting on their shoulders. The body is adorned in garments and a head piece. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “la fiesta de los defuntos,” which translates to “the festival of the dead.”
Novena Calle Llvcac Vamra
The author explains that there were ten paths for women to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This group was called llucac uamra [baby girls that crawl] and they were aged between one and two years old. The author explains these babies had no obligations and they were to be cared for by their mothers and the community. The image depicts a baby girl who is crawling on all fours. She is illustrated wearing a head garb with tassels on it. A dog is laying behind her. The caption on the image reads “de edad de un añp, cin prouecho,” which translates to “one year old, does not work.”
Noveno Calle Llvllv Vamra
The author explains that there were ten paths for men to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This ninth group was called llullu uamra [baby]. The group refers to small children aged from one to five years old and were not at an age range where they are able to work yet. The author expresses that these children are cared for and played with by older boys and are raised by their parents. This image depicts a baby crawling on the ground. The caption reads “de edad de un año cin prouecho” which translates to “the age of one, unable to work.”
Otabo Calle Pvcllacoc
The author explains that there were ten paths for men to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This eighth group is called pucllacoc [playful]. This group refers to children aged five to nine years old and their duties include helping their mothers and fathers as best as possible with younger siblings. The child in the image is depicted playing with a sling and a stone and wearing a head garb that appears to have a bat skin on it. The caption at the bottom of the image reads “de edad de cinco años niño de la dotrina” which translates to “five years old, child of school age.”
Otabo Calle Pvcllacoc Vamra
The author explains that there were ten paths for women to follow in the Inca Empire based on age division. This group was called pucllacoc uamra [playful child] and they were aged from five to nine years old. Their duties included serving their parents and nobles, gathering firewood, collecting water, and learning to cook and clean. The author explains that these young girls were often violated by the Spanish colonizers. The young, short-haired girl in the image is depicted walking barefooted as she carries a jug of water on her back. The caption on the image reads “de edad de cinco años, cirua a su madre,” which translates to “five years old, she serves her mother.”
Padre Martín de Aiala Santo de Dios Amado i Su Padrasto Prencipal Don Martín
This illustration depicts a young Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala in the centre of the image kneeling with a rosary in his hands. The words “Don Felipe Ayala, Autor, Principe” is written above his head to identify him. Behind the young author, his father is also kneeling with a rosary in hand. The words “Don Martín Ayala, padre del autor, excelentísimo señor” which translates to “Don Martín Ayala, father of the author and most excellent lord”, are written above his head. Don Martín’s wife is illustrated behind him with her name, Doña Juana Coya, also written above her head. The standing man on the left side of the image is Martín de Ayala, the step son of Don Martín. He is depicted preaching to his family from the book that he holds in his left hand. The words “Padre Martín de Ayala Mestizo Hermitaño fue zazerdote de misa” are written above his head, which translates to “Father Martín de Ayala, mestizo hermit and priest who performed mass.” The bottom of the image notes that this takes place in the city of Huamanga, as it reads “en la ciudad Guamanga.”
Palacios Reales Incap Vaci Cvivs Manco
This chapter is dedicated to discussing the Inca and his life. This image depicts the Inca’s palace and his many houses. The house on the left side of the image is labeled as cuyus mango [guard house]. There is a man sitting by the door keeping watch. There are words written in the doorway above his head which reads “cumo punco camayoc” [humpbacked door official]. The house beside cuyus mango is labeled as carpa uaci [house with awning]. To the right of carpa uaci there is a structure with many doors labeled as churacona uaci [storehouses]. There is a unique structure below the churacona uaci which appears to have a hollowed center for a courtyard labeled as quenco uaci [curved house]. The house in the bottom right corner of the image is labeled as suntor uaci [circular house]. The caption at the very bottom of the image reads “casas del ynga” [houses of the Inca].
Papa Juanes, Enperador
This illustration depicts Emperor Constantine IV crowning John V as Pope. John V is pictured kneeling on the left side of the image with his hands together. He is holding a staff with three horizontal bars at the top of it, which symbolizes pontifical power. The words “papa juanes” are written above his head, which translates to “Pope John.” Emperor Constantine IV is depicted on the right side of the image kneeling as he prepares to place the papal crown on John’s head. The word “enperador” is written above his head, which means emperor. The words “en roma” are written below Constantine, which identifies the city in which the crowning is taking place.
Papa Leo
This illustration depicts Pope Leo III sitting on his pontifical throne. He is illustrated wearing the papal tiara and a long staff that has three horizontal bars at the top, which symbolizes pontifical power. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala spends this section of his manuscript listing off approximately the first 200 popes, and Pope Leo III was one of the few that was illustrated.
Pizaro, Almargro
This illustration depicts Don Diego de Almagro on the left side of the image and Don Francisco Pizarro on the right side. These two men were chosen as captains for King Don Carlos of Castille to embark to the West Indies. Their names are written on the flags that they are holding. There is an unidentified man in the centre of the image playing a drum. The words “en castilla” are written in between the drummer and Pizarro, which identifies that they are in Castille.
Pontifical Mundo
This illustration depicts the colonization of the West Indies from the perspective of the author. There are settlements depicted all over the image, and there is writing below the sun which reads, “las yndias del piru en lo alto de espana,” which translates to “the Indies of Peru, above Spain.” In the centre of the building that is depicted below that inscription is the word Cuzco. The bottom half of the illustration is identified as “castilla en lo auajo de las indias,” which means “Castille, below the Indies.” The building at the bottom of the image has the word “Castille” written on it.

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